Frequently asked questions for the Electric Car customer
a. Hybrid : Powered by an ICE (internal combustion Engine), Battery or both.
Charging via regenerative braking and the ICE generated power.
b. Plug in Hybrid (PHEV) : As per Hybrid yet with an external charging capability
Once pure electric range is utilised, reverts back to hybrid capability without range compromise
c. Extended range EV (E-PHEV) : Vehicle has external charging capability
An on-board ICE generator charges battery if required, the ICE never drives the axle
d. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) : Powered solely by a battery charged from an external electricity supply
No ICE, sometimes known as pure electric.
Your charger is something that you need to consider seriously as the charging technology changes from year to year, as manufacturers develop new technology to improve battery life and charging times.
IEC 62196 refers to the charging modes defined in IEC 61851-1 which include:
Load Management is a solution to allow multiple car charging equipment to be installed at your premises that works within your electrical load capability
We can use static load management where we use a set value
Or we can use active load management where we use your over load capabilities with metering at the incoming cables to determine what is being used within your building, this will allow us to determine how much power is available to charge the cars plugged in.
Contact us for more information
Mode 1: Slow charging from a household type socket outlet. This is no longer a recommended solution to safe charging your vehicle
Mode 2: This is a another slow charge solution, with an in-line cable protection device, with intelligent communication that sits in-between the car and the power source, which could be a 13A socket, or an IEC 60309 socket
These can still be found supplied with cars for local use, if you have not got a dedicated charger installed.
Mode 3: AC slow or fast charge solution, this uses a specific EV type plug, which uses a control. protection function using on board charging that communicates with the dedicated charge point.
Mode 4: DC charging using an external OFF-BOARD charging unit.
There is a recognised standard with in the UK and Europe for charging plugs IEC62196 (International Electro-technical Commission)
They come several main standards that serve the UK, Europe and the world market market, these being Type One and Type Two Plugs
Type One: SAE J1772/IEC62196-2 (older models)
The SAE J1772-2009 was adopted by the car manufacturers of post-2000 electric vehicles like the third generation of the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf as the early models. The connector became standard equipment on the US-market due to the availability of charging stations with that plug type in the nation's electric vehicle network (with the help of funding such as ChargePoint America program drawing grants from provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act).
The European versions were equipped with a SAE J1772-2009 inlet as well until the automotive industry settled on the IEC Type 2 "Mennekes" connector as the standard inlet - since all IEC connectors use the same SAE J1772 signaling protocol the car manufacturers are selling cars with either a SAE J1772-2009 inlet or an IEC Type 2 inlet depending on the market. There are also (passive) adapters available that can convert J1772-2009 to IEC Type 2 and vice versa. The only difference is that most European versions have an on-board charger that can take advantage of three-phase electric power with higher voltage and current limits even for the same basic electric vehicle model (such as Chevrolet Volt / Opel Ampera).
Type Two: VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2EC
The connector manufacturer Mennekes had developed a series of 60309-based connectors that were enhanced with additional signal pins – these "CEEplus" connectors have been used for charging of electric vehicles since the late 1990s.
With the resolution of the IEC 61851-1:2001 control pilot function (aligned with the SAE J1772:2001 proposal) the CEEplus connectors were replacing the earlier Marechal couplers (MAEVA / 4 pin / 32 A) as the standard for electric vehicle charging. When Volkswagen promoted its plans for electric mobility Alois Mennekes contacted Martin Winterkorn in 2008 to learn about the requirements of the charging equipment connectors.
Based on requirement of the industry led by utility RWE and car maker Daimler a new connector was derived by Mennekes. The state of charging systems along with the proposed new connector were presented at the start of 2009.
This new connector would later be accepted as the standard connector by other car makers and utilities for their field tests in Europe.
This choice was supported by the Franco-German joint council on E-mobility in 2009.
The proposal is based on the observation that standard IEC 60309 plugs are rather bulky (diameter 68 mm / 16 A to 83 mm / 125 A) for higher current. To ensure easy handling by consumers the plugs were made smaller (diameter 55 mm) and flattened on one side (physical protection against polarity reversal).
Unlike the Yazaki connector, however, there is no latch, meaning consumers have no exact feedback that the connector is properly inserted. The lack of a latch also puts unnecessary strain on any locking mechanism.
The function of the signal pins had been defined in SAE J1772-2001 and it had been added to IEC 61851. All plug types of IEC 62196-2 use two additional signals from that standard – the control pilot CP (pin 4) and proximity pilot PP (pin 5) are added to the normal electricity pins for live wires (pin 1, pin 2) and neutral (pin 3) named N (neutral) and PE (protective earth).
The charging station will send a 1000 Hertz square wave on the contact pilot CP that is connected back to the protected earth PE on the side of the vehicle by means of a resistor and a diode.
The live wires of public charging stations will always be dead if the CP-PE circuit is open although the standard allows a charging current as in Mode 1 (maximum 16 Ampere).
If the circuit is closed then the charging station can also test the protective earth to be functional.
The vehicle can request a charging state by setting a resistor – using 2700 Ohm a Mode 3 compatible vehicle is announced ("vehicle detected") which does not require charging. Switching to 880 Ohm the vehicle is "ready" to be charged and switching to 240 Ohm the vehicle requests "with ventilation" charging which does not have an effect outdoors but the charging current will be switched off indoors if no ventilation is available.
The charging station can use the wave signal to describe the maximum current that is available from the charging station with the help of pulse width modulation: a 16% PWM is a 10 A maximum, a 25% PWM is a 16 A maximum, a 50% PWM is a 32 A maximum and a 90% PWM flags a fast charge option
A car charger installation cost can depend on many factors.
In the commercial market where there is options for multiple site locations, power is key.
Power if not available can restrict the amount of charging availability within the site, and if many chargers are required, then a load management system will be required to distribute power as required across the many chargers.
In the domestic market, where power is also restricted we are limited and and so is the choice without a large investment, which is not truly required as the car can be charged overnight with no major rush.
So installation cost will depend on the following factors:
The Government dept OLEV (Office for Low Emission Vehicles) has a limited fund which will help pay towards the home charger unit
more detail can be found: OLEV Grants
Frequently asked Questions for the car mechanic
The radiant energy released by an electric arc is capable of permanently injuring or killing a human being at distances of up to 20 feet (6.1 m). The distance from an arc flash source within which an unprotected person has a 50% chance of receiving a second degree burn is referred to as the "flash protection boundary".
The incident energy of 1.2 cal/cm^2 on a bare skin was selected in solving the equation for the arc flash boundary in IEEE 1584. The IEEE 1584 arc flash boundary equations can also be used to calculate the arc flash boundaries with boundary energy other than 1.2 cal/cm^2 such as onset to 2nd degree burn energy. Those conducting flash hazard analyses must consider this boundary, and then must determine what PPE should be worn within the flash protection boundary.
Remote operators or robots can be used to perform activities that have a high risk for arc flash incidents, such as inserting draw-out circuit breakers on a live electrical bus. Remote racking systems are available which keep the operator outside the arc flash hazard zone.
Frequently Asked Questions about buying from our site
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You can look at these rights here: ConsumerRightsAct-QA
You can also look at some examples here: cra2015-practicalexamples
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